• In Bulgaria, the formal structure is at two levels, at the industry and enterprise level, but in practice many agreements at the sectoral level are obsolete and it is agreements at the enterprise level that actually set conditions. See also: Agreement on social policy; Collective bargaining Competition law and collective agreements; EU labour relations system; European social dialogue and the implementation of the agreements; The European social model; horizontal subsidiarity; International framework agreements; Social dialogue. In Portugal, where far fewer workers are covered by new agreements and where the latest amendments will not come into force until September 2014, changes to collective agreements may still be coming. Collective bargaining covers all negotiations between unions and employers on the definition of working conditions and conditions of employment, including issues relating to wages and working time, and on the organisation of relations between employers and workers, as described in The Agreement iAO 154. A number of dimensions of collective bargaining (“negotiation structure”) have been identified. These include coverage for the percentage of workers directly affected by the agreements; The level of negotiation The scope or range of topics covered by the negotiations; and depth – that`s the extent to which agreements are implemented and verified together. Eurofound`s report on collective bargaining in Europe in the 21st century shows developments over a 15-year period in the main aspects of collective bargaining, with the exception of wages and working time, which are analysed separately. The objective of this study is to identify long-term trends and identify changes caused by the crisis. However, the fact that the collective agreement continues to decline in most EU countries shows that political support is needed in cases where trade unions are not (more) strong enough to ensure overall coverage of the negotiations. In line with the ERS commitment, European policy-makers could support the strengthening of collective bargaining by adopting country-by-country recommendations that promote negotiations with several employers, for example by facilitating the extension of collective agreements and/or strengthening the principle of complacency that guarantees the primacy of sectoral agreements over enterprise-level agreements. But tariff security is not the whole story. The level of negotiation and interaction between the different levels is also crucial.

    The details of each country are defined in the different sections of each country, but it is worth drawing attention to some of the proposed variants. According to a recent study, about six out of ten workers in the European Union are currently subject to collective agreements.

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